Assessment of Pesticides Mixtures and Time–Dependent Responses of Toxicant
The effects of Atrazine, Imidacloprid, and Nicotine mixtures were assessed using the aquatic crustacean, Artemia salina called the brine shrimp. The mixture of the insecticides was prepared in the ratios of 1:1, 1:10 and 10:1. The brine shrimp larvae were hatched in the laboratory of the Faculty of Science, Agriculture and Engineering of Newcastle University United Kingdom and the newly hatched larvae were exposed to the five concentrations of herbicide, insecticides mixtures, and their toxicity to brine shrimp larvae were determined at 6 and 24 hours. The dose-response of the brine shrimp larvae to the toxicants increased with increasing times of exposure and as the mortality increased the LD50 decreases until it levelled off. The acute toxicity for the insecticides was similar with the LD50s of Mixture of imidacloprid + atrazine ratio of 1:1 for 6 and 24h were 2.93709 and= 1.65632ppm, 1:10 for 6 and 24 h were 14.52 and 6.43ppm, 10:1 for 6 and 24 h were 3.43 and 1.52ppm. LD50 of Mixture of imidacloprid + nicotine ratio of 1:1 for 6 and 24 h were 2.64 and 2.17ppm, 1:10 for 6 and 24h were 3.72 and 3.09, 10:1 for 6 and 24h were 4.57 and 1.60. The least toxic was atrazine with LD50 for 6 and 24h were 17.12 and 3.14ppm respectively. The doses of the pesticides mixtures increased mortality of the brine shrimp with time of exposure. The time required to reach the plateau when shrimp are expected to have died was at 24 hours.
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