Anthropogenic Threats to Bio-Diversity in Gorumara National Park, West Bengal, India
Issues and challenges regarding conservation and management are debatable focuses over the years. Protected areas such as biosphere reserves, national parks and wildlife sanctuaries face unpredictable pressure of global issues such as environmental degradation, biodiversity loss, climate change, and raw material supply. The main principle of declaring an area as National Park in India is the protection and propagating wildlife therein or its environment. But an unsteadiness in ecological balance and rate of loss or extinction of species at an accelerated and dangerous dimension reported from different parks in India. In the present case study Gorumara National Park, West Bengal was considered and carried out based on extensive field survey and investigation. It was noticed that the prohibited human activities like hunting, killing or capturing animal lives, destruction and collection of plants are still practiced in the park. In addition, development of infrastructure such as construction of railways, national highways, electrification are also responsible for the loss of bio-diversity. In 2013, 23 elephants were killed out of which 18 by train accident and 5 by poachers. There is an urgent requirement for effective strategies like proper co-ordination between Public Works Department, Railway, and Forest Department and regular monitoring of the effectiveness of its management programmes to protect and conserve the balance of ecosystem and enrich the richness of floral and faunal lives in the Park.
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