Tourism Multiplier Effects: Empirical Evidence from Rwanda

Agnes Ntibanyurwa


Ciliates have been sampled in the Ekozoa stream of the Yaounde watershed. A total of 62 species representing 33 genera were identified in the lotic ecosystem. Vorticella sp had a frequency of 27.9% upstream, that of Metopus sp was 18.9% in the midcourse of the stream and Urocentrum turbo was 13.5 % downstream. Ciliates which were sporadic are Glaucoma dragescui ,Frontonia ambigua and Stentor magnum. At the three stations sampled which are located upstream, at the midzone and downstream, 51 species were sampled upstream, 52 species were sampled in the midzone ,and 56 species were sampled downstream. The results obtained from the physico-chemical parameters indicate an increase of the indicators of saprobity from upstream to downstream, with ammonia, increasing from 0.3±0.26mg/l upstream to 4.6±1.71mg/l downstream. Alkalinity, total hardness and the indicators of mineralisation rise along the streamcourse, while oxygen and the percentage of saturation evolve in the opposite direction, indicating a reduction in self purification and the assimilative capacity of the aquatic ecosystem analysed.


Economic impact, employment multiplier, income multiplier, input output model, tourism sector.

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