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Coastal Erosion and Protection – Post Tsunami Scenario in Andaman and Nicobar Islands

M. D. Kudale , N. Ravi Sankar

Abstract


The 26 December 2004 earthquake or Tsunami had a major impact on Andaman and Nicobar group of Islands. The landmass of some of the islands has subsided due to earthquake causing relative rise in the water level. The sea level rise has caused inundation of large areas in most of the Islands. The high tide line has receded, which has aggravated the erosion problem in many Islands. The vegetation in the coastal belt is destroyed due to inundation. Most of the coastal structures need to be redesigned / rehabilitated due to changed design parameters like water depths and wave heights.
The intensity of the impact of Tsunami was varied along the coast. The impact mainly depended on the interaction of the Tsunami with the coastline, which in turn depended on many parameters like bathymetry, surge height, ground slope, configuration of the coastline, structures at the coast etc. In the presence of coastal structures like seawall or breakwater the behaviour of Tsunami surge at the shoreline was totally different. The seawall or breakwater obstructed the Tsunami surge and took the major impact. As such, these structures provided protection to the land to some extent. The post-tsunami scenario of the coastal erosion and protection, behaviour of coastline and performance of the existing seawalls or breakwaters during the recent Tsunami have been described in this paper.

Keywords


Coastal Erosion, Coastal Protection, Earthquake, Subsidence of Landmass, Tidal level, Tsunami, Shoreline, Rubble mound, Seawall, Breakwater

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