Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Adaptive Invisible Watermarking Model for Securing Ownership Rights of Digital Images using SIFT features in Bi-orthogonal Wavelet domain

V. Santhi, Arunkumar Thangavelu, P. Arulmozhivarman


This paper presents an adaptive and robust invisible watermarking method for digital images. The proposed method is carried out into four phases. In the first phase, Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) is used to extract features and clustered through k-means clustering algorithm. In the second phase, around center of each cluster a minimum bounding
box is formed and the underlying image contents are cropped for inserting watermark. In the third phase, each selected region is wavelet transformed. In the fourth phase, scaling parameter is calculated adaptively using middle frequency bands of each cropped image region through hyperbolic tangent function. The watermark is resized based on the size of region cropped and inserted in to the middle frequency band of all selected regions. Further, the method is more robust to RST, cropping and other attacks due to extraction of RST invariant SIFT features and insertion of single watermark in multiple locations. Experimental results prove the robustness of the proposed method against various attacks.


Digital Watermarking, Adaptive Method, Invisible, Transform Domain, SIFT Technique, RST Invarian

Full Text:


Disclaimer/Regarding indexing issue:

We have provided the online access of all issues and papers to the indexing agencies (as given on journal web site). It’s depend on indexing agencies when, how and what manner they can index or not. Hence, we like to inform that on the basis of earlier indexing, we can’t predict the today or future indexing policy of third party (i.e. indexing agencies) as they have right to discontinue any journal at any time without prior information to the journal. So, please neither sends any question nor expects any answer from us on the behalf of third party i.e. indexing agencies.Hence, we will not issue any certificate or letter for indexing issue. Our role is just to provide the online access to them. So we do properly this and one can visit indexing agencies website to get the authentic information. Also: DOI is paid service which provided by a third party. We never mentioned that we go for this for our any journal. However, journal have no objection if author go directly for this paid DOI service.