Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Further Investigation of Environmental Kuznets Curve Studies Using Meta-Analysis

Bishwa S. Koirala, Hui Li, Robert P. Berrens


With continued growth in available evidence, statistical investigation of the systematic variation across environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) studies may improve understanding of the relationship between economic growth and environmental quality. This investigation uses meta-analysis, based on 878 observations from 103 empirical EKC studies (1992 to 2009), to explore this relationship. Relative to earlier meta-analyses, this meta-analysis has larger data set (49% more observations), and includes a broad dis-aggregation across environmental degradation measures (according to physical and chemical properties). Using cluster analysis to account for heterogeneity across studies, econometric results indicate that the type of environmental quality indicator significantly affects the presence of an EKC relationship, and any predicted income turning points (ITPs). Results indicate the presence of an EKC-type relationship for landscape degradation, water pollution, agricultural wastes, municipal-related wastes and several air pollution measures. However, in the high-profile case of CO2, the predicted value of the corresponding ITP is both extremely large in relative terms (about 10 times the world GDP per capita in 2007 purchasing power parity), far outside the observed range of the data, and significantly above any income growth scenarios (e.g., IPCC, 2000) for the 21st century that control CO2 to acceptable levels (e.g., 354 ppm in 1990). Thus, the EKC literature offers no basis for predicting that continued economic growth will lead to significantly reduced CO2 emissions, absent specific policy actions to do so.


Environmental Kuznets Curve, Income Turning Points, Meta-Analysis

Full Text:


Disclaimer/Regarding indexing issue:

We have provided the online access of all issues and papers to the indexing agencies (as given on journal web site). It’s depend on indexing agencies when, how and what manner they can index or not. Hence, we like to inform that on the basis of earlier indexing, we can’t predict the today or future indexing policy of third party (i.e. indexing agencies) as they have right to discontinue any journal at any time without prior information to the journal. So, please neither sends any question nor expects any answer from us on the behalf of third party i.e. indexing agencies.Hence, we will not issue any certificate or letter for indexing issue. Our role is just to provide the online access to them. So we do properly this and one can visit indexing agencies website to get the authentic information. Also: DOI is paid service which provided by a third party. We never mentioned that we go for this for our any journal. However, journal have no objection if author go directly for this paid DOI service.