Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

A Robust Feature- based Digital Image Watermarking Scheme Using Fourier-Mellin Transform

M. Manoochehri, Hossein Pourghassem


One of the common attacks, which can be applied on watermarked image, is rotation. In this paper, we try to propose a feature-based image watermarking algorithm which has the most level of robustness against rotation attack. For this purpose, Fourier Mellin Transform (FMT) is used. The most important property of Fourier Mellin Transform is it’s insensitivity against rotation and scaling. Our algorithm uses Harris corner detector for embedding the watermark. By performing FMT on these feature points, the advantage of insensitivity against scaling will be added to property of invariant to rotation. We use Fourier Mellin Transform to benefit its second property means insensitivity against translation to increase the robustness of watermark against attacks. The obtained results of our algorithm show that the watermarked image is in a high level of transparency.


Image watermarking, Harris corner detector, Fourier-Mellin Transform, Geometric attacks

Full Text:


Disclaimer/Regarding indexing issue:

We have provided the online access of all issues and papers to the indexing agencies (as given on journal web site). It’s depend on indexing agencies when, how and what manner they can index or not. Hence, we like to inform that on the basis of earlier indexing, we can’t predict the today or future indexing policy of third party (i.e. indexing agencies) as they have right to discontinue any journal at any time without prior information to the journal. So, please neither sends any question nor expects any answer from us on the behalf of third party i.e. indexing agencies.Hence, we will not issue any certificate or letter for indexing issue. Our role is just to provide the online access to them. So we do properly this and one can visit indexing agencies website to get the authentic information. Also: DOI is paid service which provided by a third party. We never mentioned that we go for this for our any journal. However, journal have no objection if author go directly for this paid DOI service.