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Globalization and the Nordics Environment: New Insight from Quantile Autoregressive Distributed Lag (Q-ARDL)

O. B. Aworinde, J. O. Badmus


This study investigates the possibility of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) in four NORDIC nations (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden) while accounting for the role of globalization on their environments. This study utilized the recently developed Quantile Autoregressive Distributed Lag (Q-ARDL) model for the period of 1970Q1-2018Q4. The findings of this approach unveil the existence of the inverted EKC phenomenon for Denmark, Finland, and Norway in the long run while U-shaped EKC holds for Sweden. In addition, there is evidence that overall globalization improves the environment of the four Nordic countries in the short-run and long-run periods. Therefore, this study recommends that the government of these countries should continue to adopt energy-efficient environmental policies to promote a green growth environment. Also, the government should maintain and propagate the continuous improvement of green growth methods through the provision of cleaner energy projects.


Globalization; Environment; Ecological Footprint; Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC); the Nordics; Quantile Autoregressive Distributed Lag (Q-ARDL)

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