Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Structural Breaks, Tourism and Co2 Emissions: The case of Turkey

M. Çetin, E. Ecevit, Z.Ö. Yaprak


Turkey is a growing economy with high CO2 emissions and preferred tourist destinations in the world. Therefore, the study deals with the tourism-CO2 emissions link over the period 1983-2017 in case of Turkey by integrating renewable energy consumption to the CO2 emissions specification as an additional variable. The stationarity analysis of the variables is examined by Ng-Perron and Vogelsang-Perron tests. The ARDL and Hatemi-J cointegration approaches are employed to determine the existence of cointegration among the variables under structural breaks while the causality analysis is carried out through the VECM procedure. There exists cointegration among the variables under structural breaks. There also exists evidence in favour of EKC hypothesis. The DOLS, FMOLS and CCR results reveal that tourism and renewable energy consumption decrease CO2 emissions in the long run. Additionally, a long-run bi-directional causality between tourism, renewable energy, and CO2 emissions exists. The empirical results obtained from the study can provide several policy suggestions to reduce environmental pollution for Turkish economy.


Structural breaks, tourism, CO2 emissions, cointegration, causality, Turkey

Full Text:


Disclaimer/Regarding indexing issue:

We have provided the online access of all issues and papers to the indexing agencies (as given on journal web site). It’s depend on indexing agencies when, how and what manner they can index or not. Hence, we like to inform that on the basis of earlier indexing, we can’t predict the today or future indexing policy of third party (i.e. indexing agencies) as they have right to discontinue any journal at any time without prior information to the journal. So, please neither sends any question nor expects any answer from us on the behalf of third party i.e. indexing agencies.Hence, we will not issue any certificate or letter for indexing issue. Our role is just to provide the online access to them. So we do properly this and one can visit indexing agencies website to get the authentic information. Also: DOI is paid service which provided by a third party. We never mentioned that we go for this for our any journal. However, journal have no objection if author go directly for this paid DOI service.