Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Combining Indicators of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions: EKC in India

Vijaya Gupta, Utkarsh Yadav


This study investigates the relationship between CO2 emissions and some of macroeconomic factors other including per capita GDP responsible for change in CO2 emissions for India. We consider factors such as price of fossil fuels in the form of Wholesale Price Index (WPI) for fuel and power, per capita energy consumption, energy reforms and per capita GDP for the present study. Besides understanding the contribution of these factors to CO2 emission levels, this paper also tries to find out whether there exists the famous inverted U shape relationship between per capita GDP and CO2 emissions as hypothesized by Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). For this purpose, panel data for aforesaid factors has been taken for the period 1981-2006 for India. The results of this study reveal that per capita energy consumption followed by WPI (fuel and power) are more significant factors than per capita GDP in explaining the variations in per capita CO2 emissions. Also that India has not yet reached to the turning point in EKC for CO2 emissions.


EKC; India; per capita CO2 emissions; per capita energy consumption; energy reforms; per capita GDP; and WPI.

Full Text:


Disclaimer/Regarding indexing issue:

We have provided the online access of all issues and papers to the indexing agencies (as given on journal web site). It’s depend on indexing agencies when, how and what manner they can index or not. Hence, we like to inform that on the basis of earlier indexing, we can’t predict the today or future indexing policy of third party (i.e. indexing agencies) as they have right to discontinue any journal at any time without prior information to the journal. So, please neither sends any question nor expects any answer from us on the behalf of third party i.e. indexing agencies.Hence, we will not issue any certificate or letter for indexing issue. Our role is just to provide the online access to them. So we do properly this and one can visit indexing agencies website to get the authentic information. Also: DOI is paid service which provided by a third party. We never mentioned that we go for this for our any journal. However, journal have no objection if author go directly for this paid DOI service.