Subscription or Fee Access
Optimization of Pre-Watermarked Digital Images Using Genetic Algorithm
In this paper, we propose a digital image watermarking scheme based on Genetic Algorithm (GA). The input digital host images undergo a set of pre-watermarking stages like image segmentation, feature extraction, orientation assignment, and image normalization to obtain image invariance properties when subject to attacks. Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm is used to segment the images and the features are extracted using Difference of Gaussian (DoG) technique. The feature maps from the feature extraction methods locate the magnitude by orientation assignment making the circular regions invariant. The resultant image is normalized by scaling to acquire the scaling invariance for the circular region. The watermark image is then embedded into the host image using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). During the extraction process, GA is applied to improve the robustness, and fidelity of the watermarked image by evaluating the fitness function. The perceptual transparency and the robustness of the watermarked and the extracted images are evaluated by applying filtering attacks, additive noise, rotation, scaling and JPEG compression attacks to the watermarked image. From the simulation results, the performance of the optimization technique can be understood based on the computed robustness and transparency measures along with the evaluated parameters like elapsed time, computation time and fitness value. The performance of proposed scheme was evaluated with a set of 50 textures images taken from online resources of Tampere University of Technology, Finland and the entire algorithm for different stages was simulated using MATLAB R2008b.
Expectation Maximization, Difference of Gaussian, Orientation Assignment, Image Normalization, GA, robustness, and perceptual transparency.
Disclaimer/Regarding indexing issue:
We have provided the online access of all issues and papers to the indexing agencies (as given on journal web site). It’s depend on indexing agencies when, how and what manner they can index or not. Hence, we like to inform that on the basis of earlier indexing, we can’t predict the today or future indexing policy of third party (i.e. indexing agencies) as they have right to discontinue any journal at any time without prior information to the journal. So, please neither sends any question nor expects any answer from us on the behalf of third party i.e. indexing agencies.Hence, we will not issue any certificate or letter for indexing issue. Our role is just to provide the online access to them. So we do properly this and one can visit indexing agencies website to get the authentic information.