Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Development of Believable Bots in Videogames Capable of Learning During Runtime

Luis F. Castillo, Manuel G. Bedia, Gustavo Isaza, Jairo Velez, Francisco Seron


In this paper we show that, thanks to the features of Continuous-Time Recurrent Neural Network (CTRNNs), whose neurons act at different activation level of time, the controller of a bot is capable of learning during runtime in the UT2004 videogame environment without changing any of the network parameters. This behaviour has been described in simple forms of life (e.g. examples of the small nematode worm C. elegans, evidence for the formation of associations between temperatures and food has been known for quite some time) and, in this paper, we adapt these ideas applying them to a current commercial video game. The particular experimental conditions are as following: A bot is evolved in a task where it needs to search and discriminate its base camp and the enemy’s camp and associate them with the altitude where the camp is, depending on its experience. The task requires either instrumental or classical conditioned response to be learned. In the last part of the paper is analytically analyzed the best-evolved agent’s behaviour and, also, it is explained how some ideas and methodologies that come from models of biological theory, can be easily adapted to the control of virtual characters or “bots”, i.e. synthetic agents with human behaviour.


Concept learning, connectionism, neural nets, parameter learning

Full Text:


Disclaimer/Regarding indexing issue:

We have provided the online access of all issues and papers to the indexing agencies (as given on journal web site). It’s depend on indexing agencies when, how and what manner they can index or not. Hence, we like to inform that on the basis of earlier indexing, we can’t predict the today or future indexing policy of third party (i.e. indexing agencies) as they have right to discontinue any journal at any time without prior information to the journal. So, please neither sends any question nor expects any answer from us on the behalf of third party i.e. indexing agencies.Hence, we will not issue any certificate or letter for indexing issue. Our role is just to provide the online access to them. So we do properly this and one can visit indexing agencies website to get the authentic information. Also: DOI is paid service which provided by a third party. We never mentioned that we go for this for our any journal. However, journal have no objection if author go directly for this paid DOI service.