Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Public Borrowing From Ottoman State to Turkey; Restricting the Borrowing, Fiscal Rules and Similar Practices

Mustafa HATIPLER

Abstract


Borrowing, due to the lethargy it inflicts, is a phenomenon requiring constant planning. On the whole, borrowing is a process that ends up as either continuing the road as empowered or losing economic independence. The reference points of this process are borrowing conditions and controlling the borrowing.

Ottoman State as well as young Turkish Republic have experienced the bitter effects of borrowing and related expenses for the last 150 years. The most crucial element that can stop the bitter outcomes of borrowing is restricting the debts. Compared to Ottoman State, Turkish Republic has taken more realistic decisions in debt restrictions.


Keywords


Borrowing, External Debt, Internal Debt, Restricting the Debts.

Full Text:

PDF


Disclaimer/Regarding indexing issue:

We have provided the online access of all issues and papers to the indexing agencies (as given on journal web site). It’s depend on indexing agencies when, how and what manner they can index or not. Hence, we like to inform that on the basis of earlier indexing, we can’t predict the today or future indexing policy of third party (i.e. indexing agencies) as they have right to discontinue any journal at any time without prior information to the journal. So, please neither sends any question nor expects any answer from us on the behalf of third party i.e. indexing agencies.Hence, we will not issue any certificate or letter for indexing issue. Our role is just to provide the online access to them. So we do properly this and one can visit indexing agencies website to get the authentic information.